Read e-book online 100 Mistakes that Changed History: Backfires and Blunders PDF

By Bill Fawcett

Accumulated in a single quantity, listed here are backfires and errors that collapsed empires, crashed economies, and changed the process the realm. From the Maginot Line to the Cuban Missile challenge, historical past is stuffed with undesirable strikes and not-so-bright rules that snowballed into failures and accidental results. This engrossing booklet seems at 100 such tipping issues. Japan bombs Pearl Harbor. The Caliphs of Baghdad spend themselves out of business. The Aztecs greet the Conquistadors with open palms. Mexico invitations the americans to Texas-and the american citizens by no means depart. And the remaining is history...

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Extra info for 100 Mistakes that Changed History: Backfires and Blunders That Collapsed Empires, Crashed Economies, and Altered the Course of Our World

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22 Containers of Universal Knowledge The surviving tonalamatls are multipurpose books. Their numerous almanacs relate units of time to a wide range of mantic influences that touch many parts of Aztec life. Most of the almanacs can pertain to a variety of situations, but there are also distinct almanacs dedicated to marriage partners, to birth and infancy, to journeys, to agriculture, and to the influences of the planet Venus, mentioning just the most obvious. Embedded in these almanacs, often as metaphorical expressions, is knowledge about the natural and supernatural world, signs and portents, the gods and their actions, and mythic stories of great antiquity.

8 The date 5 Flower, for example, does not represent five flowers, although Spanish friars occasionally translated it thus;9 instead it represents the juncture of day 5 (following 4 and preceding 6) in one cycle with the day sign Flower in another. Although the Maya always represented these calendrical numbers in the bar and dot system—using a bar for five and a dot for single units—the central Mexicans in the late Postclassic always depicted the numerical coefficients as individual disks that are usually organized in one or more short runs, often strung together.

1). This same priority obtains generally in the Aztec realm. When the twentyday count came into being, the world was still in half light before the final sun was born (Garibay 1979:25– 27). In the pictorial cosmogony in the Codex Borgia, explained in Chapter 7, the day count is activated immediately after the first explosion of power (Fig. 105, Plate 12). Once created, the calendar ordered all that followed in the process of creation. Archaeologically the first evidence for the Mesoamerican calendar comes in the fifth–sixth centuries bc in the form of calendrical signs and numerals carved in relief on stone monuments in Oaxaca (Caso 1965:931– 933; Marcus 1976; Urcid 2001).

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100 Mistakes that Changed History: Backfires and Blunders That Collapsed Empires, Crashed Economies, and Altered the Course of Our World by Bill Fawcett


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