By Rikin Trivedi
Atherosclerosis represents the prime explanation for mortality and morbidity on the planet. of the commonest, serious, illnesses that can take place, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, have their pathogenesis within the atherosclerosis which can impact the coronary arteries in addition to the carotid/intra-cranial vessels. as a result, long ago there has been an in depth examine in settling on pre-clinical atherosclerotic ailments so one can plan the proper therapeutical strategy prior to the pathological occasions ensue. within the final twenty years imaging recommendations and specifically Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance had an incredible development of their strength. within the box of the Computed Tomography the advent of the multi-detector-row know-how and extra lately using twin power and multi-spectral imaging presents a phenomenal point of anatomic aspect. The MR because of using energy magnetic box and very complex sequences can picture human vessels in a short time whereas providing a good distinction answer.
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13. Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E. National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:137–47. 14. Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:461–70. 15. Stephen AE et al. American College of Radiology white paper on radiation dose in medicine.
8 mSv)  because of continuous radiation emission during the scan (very low pitch and great overlap in the same section of the thorax) . • “Prospective ECG triggering” (Fig. 5): Even in this case, the scan is made synchronised with the ECG. , in the diastolic phase, when the heart is more stable, between 20 and 80 % of the R-R cycle; or between 50 and 80 % if the rhythm is lower, in order to reduce the amount of radiation dose), and the X-ray tube turns only when triggered by the ECG signal registered by the CT scanner .
Nowadays various software which automatically calculate the CASC are available, in particular using the Agatston-Janowitz method. The indications for the execution of the CT scan for the CASC are the evaluation of asymptomatic patients with an intermediate risk for CAD (values higher than 400 according to the Agatston-Janowitz score suggest modiﬁcations in the lifestyle and medical therapy in order to reduce the risk of major cardiac events), and of symptomatic patients as screening before invasive procedures or CTA (CTA could be useless in patients with high calcium score because of the increased incidence of artifacts), or if it is impossible to execute other examinations .
3D Imaging Technologies in Atherosclerosis by Rikin Trivedi
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