By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland
Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the jap Sudanic relations. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya basically Dholuo, spoken via approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic team. Languages heavily relating to it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of practical Grammar, the current quantity is a research with a two-fold target: First, it units out to supply a descriptively enough account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the potential of delivering such an account with out utilizing transformational ideas within the feel of structure-changing operations.
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Extra resources for A Functional Grammar of Dholuo
G. (31) Tlmol maduong‘ snake - rel-big ‘a big snake (a snake which is big)‘ - derives from the complex NP (noun phrase) (32) 'N|>[T11'-Iv! $[ Nplﬂluvll AdjP[d“°IlS]]l in which the sentence thuol duong ‘snake (is) big‘ is embedded into an NP which can be represented in a tree diagram as in (33) below. 28 Dnotuo Gunman (33) NP /’ \ \ Adj? 21% thuol -Z-%\ tlluol I Adj I duong' ‘The apparent oddity observed in the branching of a sentence into a noun phrase and an adjective phrase is explained by the fact that Dholuo, as we shall see later on in this section, allows verbless predicates.
L13) Koch nitie ' famine present - nikech piny notho because earth Pst-die . g. g. ‘ - _ Note that transitional adverbs such as the one in (115) often have a concessional function as well. 4. g. g. g. ‘ Finally, let us make special mention of interrogative adverbs, noting that according to the above categories most, if not all, of them can be classified as predications over propositions. This special mention is accorded to them because many grammarians tend to leave them out of their lists. g.
1. DEFHQTTENESS When common knowledge per se is the basis of deﬁniteness, there is no -grammatical or lexical marker for it in Dholuo. ‘ The referent ofjapuonj is not speciﬁc. However, when some parents go to a particular teacher's house and say: ' (3) Wadwaro japuonj -it is nomially understood to mean the teacher who lives in that house; and the referent ofjapuonj in this case is understood to be speciﬁc. Deﬁniteness based on previous mention is usually marked by the demonstrative morphemes no and eha (and their plural forms go and ka, respectively).
A Functional Grammar of Dholuo by Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland