By M. Z. Kebbe
First released in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa corporation.
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Additional resources for A Transformational Grammar of Modern Literary Arabic
It should be noted, however, that the preverbal elements sa- and sawfa, naturally precede imperfective and never perfective forms. (66 Perfective vs imperfective forms of the verb na:ma) (67 Imperfective prefixes) (68 Imperfective subject clitics) (69 Perfective subject clitics) In short, the rewrite rule for VERB can be formulated as follows: V 70- VERB → (Pre V) [±Perfective] The problem of transitive vs intransitive verbs can be elegantly handled by the process of strict subcategorization - a process that predicts whether a certain verb can take an object NP (the second in the linear order in the base rule 39) or a prepositional phrase (that may be the source of the indirect object NP or the prepositional phrase which occurs with phrasal verbs).
Deep structure, the interpretive semanticists argue, is insufficient for the semantic interpretation of the sentence; that is why they have introduced a set of interpretive rules which can apply to deep as well as surface structures, or indeed to any structure. This view, known as Extended Standard Theory (EST), argues that the deep structure of the sentence is distinct from its semantic representation. In his On WH- Movement(17), Chomsky writes: “I assume that thematic relations in the sense of Jakendoff (1972) and related works are determined by interaction of lexical properties and configurations of deep structure.
However, ungrammatical strings, though left without English translation, are assigned adequate transliteration. …] Square brackets are used to index inherent syntactic features on lexical items or grammatical categories +, − Plus or minus symbols are used to indicate the presence or absence of a certain syntactic feature * The asterisk means that the following string is ungrammatical or unacceptable ? A query means that the following string is doubtful ## Crossed bars denote sentence boundaries Ø A naught denotes a zero or a deleted element ⇒ A double arrow means rewrite the phrase marker on the left as that on the right ≠ Slashed equation means that items on both sides are not equal A node x immediately dominates B if there is no intervening symbol between X and B.
A Transformational Grammar of Modern Literary Arabic by M. Z. Kebbe