Download e-book for kindle: Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy by John Julius Norwich

By John Julius Norwich

ISBN-10: 1400067154

ISBN-13: 9781400067152

With the papacy embattled in recent times, it truly is necessary to have the viewpoint of 1 of the world’s such a lot complete historians. In Absolute Monarchs, John Julius Norwich captures approximately thousand years of notion and devotion, intrigue and scandal. the boys (and might be one lady) who've held this place of infallible strength over hundreds of thousands have ranged from heroes to rogues, admirably clever to absolutely decadent. Norwich, who knew popes and had inner most audiences with others, recounts in riveting aspect the histories of the main major popes and what they intended politically, culturally, and socially to Rome and to the world.

Norwich provides such courageous popes as blameless I, who within the 5th century effectively negotiated with Alaric the Goth, an invader civil experts couldn't defeat, and Leo I, who 20 years later tamed (and probably paid off) Attila the Hun. right here, too, are the scandalous figures: Pope Joan, the mythic girl acknowledged (without any substantiation) to were elected in 855, and the notorious “pornocracy,” the 5 libertines who have been descendants or fans of Marozia, debauched daughter of 1 of Rome’s strongest families.

Absolute Monarchs brilliantly portrays reformers reminiscent of Pope Paul III, “the maximum pontiff of the 16th century,” who reinterpreted the Church’s instructing and self-discipline, and John XXIII, who in 5 brief years beginning in 1958 “opened up the church to the 20th century,” instituting reforms that resulted in Vatican II. Norwich brings the tale to the current day with Benedict XVI, who's dealing with a world priest intercourse scandal.

Epic and compelling, Absolute Monarchs is the dazzling tale of a few of history’s such a lot respected and reviled figures, males who nonetheless forged gentle and shadows at the Vatican and the realm at the present time.

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Si ces consignes sont respectées, Excel détermine de lui-même le bloc des données lorsque le curseur est ancré dans une des cellules du bloc (voir fascicule Excel 2, IV. 1); • il est souhaitable — sans que cela soit exigence — que l'un des champs joue le rôle de champ-clé, c'est à dire qu'il contienne une valeur qui identifie sans ambiguïté chaque enregistrement de la table. Si aucune colonne ne peut jouer ce rôle, on peut rajouter un champ contenant un numéro d'identification allant de 1 à N. Excel permet de créer rapidement ce type de colonne grâce à l'incrémentation automatique.

Le formulaire SAISIE DES ARRETS en mode création 56 Chapitre 1 - Des sources aux données Le formuJaire SAISIE DES ARRETS en mode affichage La boîte à outils Formulaire LES ENREGISTREMENTS REPETES Répétition de valeurs dans des champs-clés Dans cet exemple, une deuxième difficulté peut apparaître en saisie lorsque l'on retrouve dans la source un inculpé déjà « entré » dans la base de données. Tout se passe normalement dans la table ARRET, le problème se déclare dans la table INCULPE : Le champ NOM, PRENOM est donné comme clé primaire - ce qui signifie que ce champ ne peut avoir deux fois la même valeur - Access refuse donc d'écrire à nouveau une valeur qui figure déjà dans la table.

Comment faire ? et bien, tout convertir ! chez soi, tranquillement en rajoutant auprès de la colonne des dates telles qu'elles apparaissent sur la source (ex : 15 vendémiaire an II) une nouvelle colonne réservée aux dates converties. Établir les règles de saisie Une grande part des difficultés que l'on peut rencontrer lors du traitement des données provient d'une mauvaise saisie, aussi doit-on préparer celle-ci soigneusement. Première étape : préparer les titres en première ligne des colonnes On peut même pousser le raffinement jusqu'à mettre une annotation aux cellules contenant les intitulés.

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Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy by John Julius Norwich

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