By Carlos Rotellar
A short, transparent, functional, and funny method of acute renal insufficiency.
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Additional info for Acute renal insufficiency made ridiculously simple
Varicocele Scrotal Ultrasound The scrotum and its contents are superficial structures and thus well visualized with sonography. Scrotal pain and A varicocele (Fig. 9) will appear as a series of tortuous anechoic tubular structures either around, above, or below the testis. There is some variation in the caliber of the ves- 24 J. Hines et al. b a Fig. 8 Testicular torsion. Gray-scale and color Doppler images of the testes and gray-scale image of the spermatic cord in a young man presenting with acute right scrotal pain.
Because the density of these lesions (greater than 20 HU) overlaps with solid nodules, they cannot be differentiated by unenhanced or contrast-enhanced CT alone. Rather, both unenhanced and enhanced images must be acquired in the same sitting, with HU measurements obtained from both series. At this time, there is no true consensus on what constitutes significant enhancement; however, a threshold of >20 HU is used by some experts, with a 10–20 HU difference considered to be equivocal . In the case of an enhancing soft tissue mass with no visible fat, there are no reliable CT findings to help differentiate a benign soft tissue mass, such as an oncocytoma or lipid-poor angiomyolipoma, from a renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
A, b) Abnormally high velocity is demonstrated at the level of the renal artery stenosis, while the arterial waveforms distal to the stenosis (b) show an abnormally delayed systolic upstroke with low amplitude (“tardus parvus”) with corresponding low velocity. (c) Digitally subtracted image from renal arteriogram in the same patient shows a high grade mid-arterial stenosis (arrow). Normal renal arterial waveform. (d) A normal low-resistance waveform and velocity are demonstrated in the left renal artery in a different patient.
Acute renal insufficiency made ridiculously simple by Carlos Rotellar