By Claude Hagége
This pioneering examine relies on an research of over two hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a nearly common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, resembling jap, have postpositions; others have either; and but others varieties that aren't particularly both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among components of a sentence: traditionally one point governs a noun or noun-like be aware or word whereas the opposite capabilities as a predicate. From the syntactic standpoint, the supplement of an adposition relies on a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head is dependent upon relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the middle of the grammar of such a lot languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological gains, syntactic capabilities, and semantic and cognitive houses. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that specific the family members of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark house, time, accompaniment, or software. Adpositions frequently govern case and are often steadily grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the total set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws gentle on techniques of morphological and syntactic switch in several languages and language households. His publication should be welcomed by way of typologists and by way of syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Extra info for Adpositions
This explains the difference between (40a) and (4ob)-(4i), and suggests that -ssà and -nak do not belong to the same category: it is likely that the function marker which precedes possessive suffixes instead of following them is a case suffix to a former noun (cf. 6), while the function marker which appears at the end of the governed noun-phrase in an agglutinative language like Hungarian seems to behave like a Po, although handbooks generally present it as one of the members of the list of twenty-three case suffixes claimed to be among the characteristics of Hungarian.
Example (39a) literally means "black dog (lit. "dog blackness") (the one) of (-/•/) main wife (the one) of (~ro) brother (the one) of ( ro) me is dead" In other words, ri and ro are postpositions marking an adnominal ("genitive") relationship and agreeing in class (human ro vs. animal ri) with the head nouns, here successively kokye "dog", toko "woman" and odrupi "brother" (cf. 5). We have here what Kuno calls, in the passage cited above, a "hopeless situation of center-embedding and juxtaposition of postpositions"; in fact (39b), in which the genitive markers would follow each of their governed terms, is totally ungrammatical.
It is rare, although not unattested, for Adps to blend the indication of function with gender or number. And they do not often code core relations. Case affixes, on the other hand, can have these three roles, but they cannot be conjoined, nor appear without their governed term, nor be separated from it by other words or juxtaposed alone at the end of a sentence. Many languages have both Adps and case affixes. The various phonological, morphological, word order, syntactic, semantico-pragmatic, and historical differences we have studied above are in agreement with the fact that these languages will, quite logically, give the two strategies a good deal of differentiation from each other.
Adpositions by Claude Hagége