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Qxd 10/29/2005 6 11:55 AM Page 6 ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN IONIC CONDUCTORS conduct electric current, and for any given material it depends on the temperature but not on the size and geometry of the sample. The reciprocal ρ ϵ 1/σ is the resistivity (units: Ω · cm); numerically, it is the resistance of a conductor sample 1 cm long and 1 cm2 in cross section. Electric currents in electrolyte solutions are the directed motions of ions under the influence of an applied electric field. Ions in solution are in a state of continuous kinetic molecular (thermal) motion.

At an anode, electrons go away from the junction into the metal; hence, an anodic reaction must generate electrons. Similarly, at a cathode, electrons supplied by the circuit must react (and thus are eliminated from the reaction zone). 19), the zinc electrode will be the cathode, and its surface is the site of the cathodic reaction involving the deposition of zinc by discharge of zinc ions from the solution: Zn2ϩ ϩ 2eϪ → Zn. 21) This reaction satisfies the requirements listed above; the zinc ions and electrons arriving at the surface from different sides disappear from the reaction zone.

13) j j j It is obvious that 0 Յ tj Յ1 and ͚ tj ϭ 1. For conductors with a single type of ion, the transport number of these ions is unity. For conductors with different types of ions, the individual transport number of a given ion depends on the concentrations and mobilities of all ions. For the conductivity of a binary electrolyte solution with the degree of dissociation α, we have, according to Eq. 12), σ ϭ αzkckF(u ϩ uϪ). 1 Conductivities (at 25ЊC) as functions of concentration in aqueous solutions of (1) H2SO4; (2) KOH; (3) NH4Cl; (4) NaNO3.

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An Annual publication of satisfactory methods for the preparation of organic chemicals by Organic Syntheses

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